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The Internet of Things: The Next Technological Revolution By Bell Labs

Monday, 25 March 2013

Technological Revolution 

 A wide range of researchers from academia and industry, as well as businesses, government agencies, and cities, are exploring the technologies comprising the Internet of Things from three main perspectives: scientific theory, engineering design, and the user experience.
The term Internet of Things (IoT) describes several technologies and research disciplines that enable the Internet to reach out to the real world of physical objects. Technologies like RFID, short-range wireless communications, real-time localization, and sensor networks are becoming increasingly pervasive, making the IoT a reality.
In fact, after the World Wide Web and universal mobile accessibility, the IoT represents the most potentially disruptive technological revolution of our lifetime. With 50 to 100 billion things expected to be connected to the Internet by 2020, we are now experiencing a paradigm shift in which everyday objects become interconnected and smart.
However, human understanding and usage of, and interaction and experience with, "smart things" and the systems they form have not developed at the same pace, and this creates challenges with enormous technical, societal, economic, and political consequences. Consequently, a wide range of researchers from academia and industry, as well as businesses, government agencies, and cities, are exploring this exciting technology from three main perspectives: scientific theory, engineering design, and the user experience.
Motivated by this more holistic view, the research community has moved its focus from the system to the end user. This shift aims to empower users by providing them with the knowledge required to understand and control their environment, as well as by offering new accessible and interactive interfaces that go beyond the traditional desktop.
With this in mind, this special issue of Computer presents five recent research and deployment case studies. Two of the articles project our readers into futurist scenarios: one imagines nanotechnologies' penetration into embedded computing and electronics while the other discusses the extent to which neuroscience will drive future IoT development. The remaining three articles offer a detailed insight into technological solutions that are unleashing new forms of AI and programming constructs and discuss their societal impact through end-user empowerment. All of the articles are at the forefront of the user-centered design approach.
In This Issue
In "Prototyping Connected Devices for the Internet of Things," an international team of researchers addresses the challenge of providing users with an engaging experience in a space with everyday connected objects. The authors focus on Microsoft .Net Gadgeteer, an extensible and reconfigurable hardware platform that opens up unprecedented opportunities for users to imagine new, playful, and personalized forms of interaction and functionalities. The power and simplicity of user-centered programming tools like Gadgeteer are expected to be key facilitators for the wider adoption of IoT-driven do-it-yourself (DIY) development practices.
In "Opportunistic Human Activity and Context Recognition," Daniel Roggen and his coauthors describe a next-generation connected object space. Moving away from a goal-driven and preconfigured system, their approach leverages sensor data and augmented objects available anytime, anywhere in an opportunistic way. The authors take readers through a smart home scenario and describe how their newly developed contextual recognition methods intercept and adapt dynamically to the data made available using their Opportunity framework.
In "Applying Human Learning Principles to User-Centered IoT Systems," Sang Wan Lee and his colleagues describe how they borrowed theories from cognitive psychology to design adaptive IoT systems that radically improve the user interaction experience. The authors showcase the perceptual building blocks that are instrumental for designing user-centered and intelligible IoT systems. In particular, they discuss the FRIEND::Process system, a tool-supported process for organizing human tasks that rely on both top-down and bottom-up organization.
In "Educating the Internet-of-Things Generation," researchers from the Open University describe their successful My Digital Life course, an introductory computer science curriculum centered around and aided by IoT technology. Drawing upon their experience with almost 2,000 students, they highlight the technology's pros and cons for collaborative and collective distance learning, especially for modules with real-world sensing applications.
Finally, in "Realizing the Internet of Nano Things: Challenges, Solutions, and Applications," Sasitharan Balasubramaniam and Jussi Kangasharju offer a compelling vision of nanoscale IoT systems. They discuss research challenges pertaining to data collection at the microscopic level from electromagnetic and molecular nanonetworks, the requirements of corresponding middleware for devices connecting to such networks, and potential IoNT applications.
We optimistically look forward to an IoT-assisted world that is both connected and smarter. The solutions proposed in this issue's cover features to address some of the challenges that the IoT poses. Future research will undoubtedly provide solutions for many, if not all, of the unresolved concerns.
We thank all the editors, authors, and reviewers involved for helping to make this special issue a success. We are especially thankful to Ron Vetter, Computer's editor in chief, who approved the special issue and has guided us throughout the process of preparing it for publication.
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10 Easy Tips To Speed Up Your Computer By Milica Pantic

Wednesday, 20 March 2013

Speed Up Your Computer
By Milica Pantic
 There are many things that can bog down and slow the operation of your computer system. Here are some ways that you can speed up your system so it runs faster for you.

Turn Off Anti-Virus Programs

Leave your Firewall on but turn off anti-virus programs if you're playing a game or working with an application that takes a lot of computer power. The firewall can protect you from Internet threats. Be sure to turn the virus protection back on once you're done. You'll gain some computer speed with the virus program off.

Plug In Your Laptop

When you run your laptop off of the batter you don't get as much power from it. To gain some computer speed back you should plug the laptop in when you're at home and not on the road somewhere.

Turn Off Programs You Don't need

When your computer starts up there may be several programs running you never use. Close these programs down to gain speed. When you're operating your computer normally, only run the programs you need, close everything else. The computer has to switch back and forth between programs and this slows it down.
Memory
Most computers have room for additional memory sticks. Add as much memory as your computer can hold. You'll gain speed for games and application that require plenty of power such as video programs and photographs.
Virus Scan
Be sure to scan your computer for viruses, malware, and spyware on a regular basis. You may have these malicious programs and not even know it. Eliminating them will speed up your computer and reduce problems with the system. For serious infections, a computer technician can help you.
Dust
Make sure your computer is cleaned often. The buildup of dust can slow down the entire system and even destroy the sensitive components. You can do this yourself or have a qualified technician do it for you. This should be a part of any sensible maintenance plan for your computer.
Defrag
Run the defrag program to speed up your hard disk. This can eliminate many problems with your system. You can do this on a periodic basis to gain more speed.
Upgrade
Software programs come out with upgrades all the time to fix programs with software and install new features. These new upgraded programs can work better on your system and you can gain speed by using them so make sure you have all the upgrades for your software. This is particularly important for the drivers of a video or sound card.
Watch For Error Messages
An error message means something isn't quite working the way it should. Try to fix these yourself but if you can't then see a technician. Errors can slow the system down and cause more problems if you leave them without doing anything.
Check Connections
Sometimes a bad connection can cause problems. Make sure all your cards are working correctly and upgrade older cards if there's a need. Check the Internet connection too to make sure you are getting a proper connection if it seems slow.
Need to speed up your computer?
Hi my name is Mitz Pantic. If you need more tips on how to get the best speed from your computer please see my article called 15 tips to speed up a computer.
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How to Understand (and Fix) HTML Errors

Monday, 18 March 2013

How to Understand
 and Fix
Why does every error seem to have some sort of obscure number rather than a true explanation of what just went wrong when you tried to pull up a website or load your email? But numbers are the norm, and figuring out what's wrong with your computer requires digging just a bit deeper than we might prefer. Interestingly enough, many errors have similar causes or - at the very least - similar solutions.

Error 400

When you see a message that looks like "400:Bad Request" or more specifically "HTTP Error 400 - Bad Request" you can trust what you see. The request you made was faulty in some way. Typing a URL in your browser is a sign to the computer that you're requesting a page from another computer or server. When something is wrong in the URL you typed, it can't load and it gives you an error.
While a typo is certainly a strong possibility for Error 400, it may also be that the page you're trying to reach has been deleted, the URL was copied down wrong or is missing key elements. The website may have been updated as well.

Error 401

"401: Unauthorized" means you're not the person the website was hoping to see when you tried to log in. Error 401 is a simple error - the virtual door was just slammed in your face by the website security. If you didn't log into a website that requires users to enter their username and password, you'll see Error 401. If you did attempt to login, but the website server didn't recognize you, you mistyped something or some other odd twist of fate, you won't be allowed to proceed and you'll be staring down Error 401 as well.

Error 403

You naughty thing! When you get an Error 403 message, it means you've tried to access part of a website that is absolute, positively forbidden. Who knows what the webmaster is trying to hide behind the virtual brick wall you just slammed into, but one thing is for sure - you're not going to go any farther with that particular URL. At least not right now.
You may hit Error 403 rather innocently, of course, but typing something wrong in the URL or perhaps just trying to access the website at the wrong time of the day. This error doesn't mean you did anything with a sinister motive... unless you were doing something with a sinister motive.
Error 404
You might see any number of unique messages for Error 404, but they will all have something along the lines of "Error 404: Page Not Found". You'll see the Error 404 message when you try to pull up a web page that isn't actually located on the server.
In very general terms, Error 404 is supposedly your fault, but in reality not all Error 404 messages appear because of user error. Pages may be down on a website or you may have been trying to reach a page that the website owner took down or changed, and nobody can blame that on you.
Error 408
Error 408 is a particularly frustrating stumbling block on the internet. You type in the URL or click on a link. And you wait. And you wait. And then the website returns an error rather than the site you were trying to reach. This is Error 408 - you've "Timed Out."
When you send a request for a website and it doesn't load fast enough, the server gives up. Rather than loading the site in question, it coughs up an error. Sometimes a quick refresh helps, but other times more drastic interaction is required. To Refresh your browser, click on the circular arrow near the address bar.
RESOLVING THE ERRORS
While there are many numbers attributed to the various internet errors above, many will have the same or similar solutions. When you're not getting to the website you're attempting to reach, solving the problem involves something of a drill down technique.
Check the Internet Connection
Do a quick check that you're getting full internet access by pulling up a search page and searching for something random. If you get results and you're able to click through to those sites, you can cross faulty internet off your list of possible problems. If you aren't getting to any new websites, you would do well to reset your router and restart your computer to be sure you're fully connected to the internet.
Check for obvious mistakes
Look over the address you just typed and look for obvious mistakes - long URLs especially are hard to type correctly. If you miss one letter or dot, you won't be going far. Check also, especially on Error 403 where passwords would be encrypted, that you don't have Caps Lock turned on. Check also that Number Lock is set as you normally have it. If you do discover an honest mistake, simply correct it and try again. The solution may be that simple.
Restart your computer
While it's allegedly the internet giving you trouble, not your computer, it never hurts to restart the computer. When you restart your computer may update some critical software or reset the connection to the router so that your internet works correctly or at a higher speed. It's an easy possible fix, and worth the few minutes, it takes.
Update your browser
If you notice that you're having a lot of internet problems and seeing quite a few issues spring up, check to be sure that your internet browser is fully up to date. Your browser is probably set to automatically update as new versions become available, but if you've put off updating or missed an update, you can get caught up by going to Windows Update for Internet Explorer, and by going to the Tools menu for Firefox and Chrome.
Update plug-ins
If your browser is totally up-to-date, check to be sure that plug-ins that are commonly used are up to date as well. Among common plug-in for websites are things like ActiveX and Flash. You may see a message on the website to update the plug-in or you might manually update these by visiting the websites and downloading the offending applications to update or install the plug-ins. Firefox offers a plug-in check page here as well to get ideas for what may be causing the problem.
Check back later
Finally, if nothing else seems to be working, you can always throw your hands up and walk away. But be sure to come back later. Often websites have their own issues that can cause these errors and simply waiting five minutes will be all you need to do in order to have things working correctly again.
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Save your time, learn MS Excel online

Thursday, 7 March 2013
Microsoft Excel online classes
 via skype software
In the age of cut-throat competition where knowledge trumps everything else, learning MS Excel is a must. Keeping at par with the latest technological developments has become as major criteria for almost all the sectors in the market. MS Excel is basically a spreadsheet application with many features like calculations, graphs, and pivot tables with a powerful programming language to add more to the credibility of the program. In short, MS Excel is the requirement of every office so as to aid the management of accounts, product list, invoice etc. MS Excel is developed by Microsoft and can run on Microsoft Windows as well as Mac Operating System. The process of analysis, managements, sharing of information becomes better, more powerful and more convenient with this groundbreaking program which enables you to make better, smarter and rational decisions. With the latest version of this program, new analysis & visualization tools have been added which help in keeping track and highlights the important data trends. This program enables you to upload your files online and collaborate with other users as well. Whether you are an accountant, a doctor or a businessman, Excel 2012 will provide you with efficiency, flexibility, and support to accomplish your goals. Microsoft excel online training offered with GreyCampus is a comprehensive and well-planned course which is designed to help people from all walks of life. Professionals, student, and others can enroll for Microsoft Excel courses online which would provide them with extensive knowledge on the usage of MS Excel so as to use it in a more effective manner and take them from a beginner to expert level. GreyCampus has emerged as a leading global player in the market of professional training in the recent years. It provides certification training for the prospective students. The content of the course has been developed by the developers of Excel itself. The 24*7 assistance through email, phone and chat helps the students to clear their doubts, anytime, anywhere. The course also includes quizzes, practical case studies, training contents and real life situations which help the students learn in a more interactive and comprehensive way.
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